PRI, KYOTO UNIV. ＞FRC・People ＞Zhang Peng
Present PhD candidate. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan. Advisor Prof. Kunio Watanabe
April 2006 M.S. degree. Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Japan. Advisor Prof. Kunio Watanabe-- Thesis: Extra large clusters and their social structure of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in the Shodoshima Island, Central Japan.
Sep. 2003 M.S. degree. College of Life Science, Northwest University, China. Advisor Prof. Bao-guo Li-- Thesis: Social organization of a provisioning in Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in Qinling Mountains, China.
Sep. 2000 B.A. degree. College of Life Science, Northwest University, China
2008 The President Prize of Kyoto University - Kyoto University, Japan
2006 Award for Outstanding Student Poster Presentation -- International Primate Society
2002 Award for Excellent Graduates -- Northwest University, China
1999 Award for Excellent Undergraduates -- Northwest University, China
2003 - 2009 Japanese government scholarship for research student
2008, 2007, 2006 JSPS Core-to-Core HOPE project, researching Chinese golden monkey - Found leader
2006 JSPS 21st COE project, researching Japanese macaque at Shodoshima - Found leader
2005-2008 COSMO Oil Eco Card Foundation of Japan. Conservation of Golden monkeys in the Qinling Mountains. -- Found participant
2003 Zoological Society of San Diego, USA. Study of ecology and behavior of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains of China. -- Found participant
2004-2001 Daiko Foundation of Japan. Conservation of Golden monkeys in the Qinling Mountains - Found participant
2002-2004 Primate Conservation Foundation. Habitat utilization of Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains of China. -- Found participant
2000-2002 Important Project Foundation of Shaanxi Education Department. Study of Biodiversity in the Qinling Mountains. -- Found participant
2000-2002 Natural Science Foundation of China. Fragmentation adaptation of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Qinling Mountains. -- Found participant
1999-2000 Nippon Life Insurance Foundation of Japan. Conservation of Golden monkeys in the Qinling Mountains. -- Found participant
I am interested in evolution of the multi-level society in Chinese golden
monkeys, and I am particularly fascinated by the social dynamics and social
structure of the Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). For
my thesis, I have revealed that the one-male units are the basic social unit
of R. roxellana with many OMUs forming a band. There are some
questions that I would like to pursue further. For example, how do members
of one-male units wave their social networks? What kind of social
relationships do one-male units build? Why do R. roxellana always
form large bands that are much larger than groups of most other Asian
From 1999, I collaborated with Prof. Baoguo Li (my master-course supervisor) in the Northwest, China, Prof. Watanabe Kunio (my doctor-course supervisor) and Prof. Wada Katsuo in the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto Univesity, Japan. We habituated and individually identified a provisioned free-ranging band of R. roxellana in the Qinling Mountains, central part of China. We found that there are clear dominance relationships among one-male units in the study band, and female dynamics are more resemble with female-bonded species than with cross-bonded species. These preliminary understanding may help people further understand social organization of R. roxellana.
Several non-human primate species are also organized in similarly typed multi-level societies, for example, Hamadryas baboon (Papio hamadryas), gelada baboon (Theropithecus gelada), proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus) have one-male units, band and troop. I am trying to compare social dynamics among these species. The comparative study will allow predictions about evolution of multi-level society of non-human primates, as well as of human who also have multi-level society.
I would like to introduce groups of Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata)
living in a small island, named Shodoshima, located in western part of
Japan. Monkeys in the Island habitually form very large rest clusters
including up to 150 individuals. Local people call these large rest clusters
as 'Sarudango' (means monkey ball), and consider that monkeys huddled
together for warmth. But in snow-covered habitats the cluster sizes of
Japanese macaques rarely exceed 10 individuals, and clusters are mostly
composed of close kin; for example, the mean cluster size in the Shiga
Heights group was 3.1, with a maximum of 10 in snow-covered habitats, and
mean cluster size in the Minoo group was three in winter, with 68.1% of
cluster members being close kin. The Shodoshima is usually mild climate and
it is rare to snowing in winter, it is therefore difficult to explain the
extra-large clusters of monkeys on Shodoshima only as an adaptation to cold
Our study suggested that Shodoshima monkeys have very relaxed dominance style, compared with Japanese macaques in other habitats. The relaxed dominant relations among individuals allow subordinate individuals huddle with dominant individuals, and sustain the formation of extra-large clusters.
What are eye colors of Japanese monkeys? People mostly think that Japanese monkeys have yellow or brown eyes. Our results suggested that Eye colour in Japanese macaques shows apparent differences between individuals, continuously ranging from orange (bright), through shades of yellow and hazel-blue to dark blue (dark). Most Japanese macaques have yellow eyes after infant phase, whilst 12-19% of monkeys (>6 months, sexes combined) have blue-eye. Frequency of eye colour did not differ between males and females, but significantly differed in each age class. Blue eyes significantly more frequently occurred in newborns, infants and aged monkeys than in juveniles and prime adults. Data from mother-infant pairs indicated eye colour could be inherited from their parents. We discussed eye colour variation of Japanese macaques in relation to those of humans and rhesus macaques, and provided a possible evolutionary model of eye colour in Japanese macaques.
It is well known that Japanese macaques in a free-ranging group bathe in a hot spring in Jigokudani valley, Nagano prefecture. In American text books, the hot-spring bath of Japanese macaques was referred as an example of animal culture, as well as ant fishing of Chimpanzee. Unfortunately there are no systemic data on the monkeys' bathing behavior, and a persuasive explanation for the behavior is not yet available. Our results suggested that 31% of a total 114 females in the group habitually bathed in the hot spring from 1980 to 2003. The habit was more widespread in dominant matrilines than in subordinate matrilines. Infants whose mothers bathed were more likely to bathe than infants of mothers who did not bathe. The number of monkeys bathing was clearly influenced by ambient air temperature. More monkeys bathed in the hot spring in winter than in summer. The results support the thermoregulation hypothesis of hot spring bathing. Bathing behavior varies among age and sex categories of monkeys, with adult females and juveniles bathing more often than adult males and subadults. We compared hot spring bathing with other thermoregulatory behaviors in various primate populations.
Picture 1 Award received from 21th IPS, Uganda
Picture 2 With Jane goodall, Uganda
Picture 3 In Koshima island, Niyazaki prefecture, Japan
Picture 4 A resident male huddling a juvenile
Picture 5 Our study team since 1995
Picture 6 Extra-large clusters of Shodoshima monkeys
Picture 7 From the left, Dr. Rizaldi, Prof. Watanabe Kunio (our supervisor), Myself
Picture 8 Eye color of Japanese monkeys
Picture 9 In Entebbe, Uganda
Picture 10 Cover image of AJP, photo was token by myself at Jigokudani, Nagano prefecture, Japan
Picture 11 My friends in PRI, Kyoto University, Japan
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Bao-guo Li. 2008. Female Social Dynamics in a Provisioned Free-ranging Band of the Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. Am. J. Primatol. Accepted.
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Bao-guo Li, Xiao-guang Qi. 2008. Dominance relationships among one-male units in a provisioned free-ranging band of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains, China. Am. J. Primatol. In press
-- Peng Zhang. 2008. Effects of provisioning on the social-ecological aspect of non-human primates. Acta Anthropologica Sinica In press
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe. 2007. Husbandry and Welfare of Captive Non-human Primates. Zoological Research. 28(4): 448-456. http://www.zoores.ac.cn/qikan/manage/wenzhang/200704448.pdf
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Tokida Eishi. 2007. Habitual hot spring bathing by a group of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in their natural habitat. Am. J. Primatol. 69: 1425-1430. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/114277046/PDFSTART?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe. 2007. Preliminary study on eye colour of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in their nature habitats. Primates 48: 122-129.
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe (2007) Extra-large clusters and social structure in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) from Shodoshima Island, Central Japan. Am. J. Primatol. 69: 1119-1130. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/114131816/PDFSTART
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Baoguo Li, Chia L. Tan. 2006. Social Organization of the Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Primates, 47: 374-382. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/ep326v4886519434/fulltext.pdf
-- Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Baoguo Li. 2006. Forest strata utilization of Sichuan Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in their natural habitat. Acta Zoologica Sinica, 52: 429-436. http://www.actazool.org/pdftemp/%7BEA0907A2-BAEA-4F3F-B96A-839E6F388CD2%7D.pdf
-- Peng Zhang, Kuonio Watanabe (2005) Recent expansion of the range of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) and associated management problems. Chinese Primate Research and Conservation News, 14: 7-11.
-- Peng Zhang, Li Baoguo, Wada Kazuo, Chia. L Tan, Kunio Watanabe. 2003. Social structure of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) in the Qinling Mountains of China. Acta Zool Sinica 49 (6): 727-735 http://www.actazool.org/pdftemp/%7B091E8197-50E9-4482-995D-AD948EB5EA2A%7D.pdf
-- Baoguo Li, Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Fumio Fukuda, Kazuo Wada. 2004. Dose allogrooming serve a hygienic function in Sichuan snub-nosed monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana). Acta Zoologica Sinica, 48: 707-715. http://www.actazool.org/pdftemp/%7B140FBF7D-2D91-4388-9038-7D7BBEE75C56%7D.pdf
-- Baoguo Li, Peng Zhang, Kunio Watanabe, Chia L Tan, Fumio Fukuda, Kazuo Wada. 2003. A dietary shift in the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey. Acta Theriol Sinica 23: 358-360. http://www.mammal.cn/chinese/downloadpdf.asp?id=134
-- Peng Zhang. 2009. The golden monkeys (Rhinopithecus spp.): their ecology, distribution and conservation challenges. In: Yamagiwa & Karczmarski eds. Primates and Cetaceans: Field Research and Conservation of Complex Mammalian Societies. Springer. In preparation.
-- Dominant relationships among one male harems of Sichuan golden monkeys in the Qinling Mountains, China. The 23th congress of Japanese Primatology Society. July 14-16. 2007. Shiga Prefecture, Japan.
-- Social relationships within one-male harems of Sichuan golden monkeys, China. Asian Primatology and Mammalogy. Feb. 27-28, 2007. Aichi Prefecture, Japan
-- Eye color of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). The 21st congress of the International Primatological Society. July 25-30. 2006. Entebbe city, Uganda
-- Extra Large clusters of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata). The 21st congress of the International Primatological Society. July 25-30. 2006. Entebbe city, Uganda
-- Extra Large clusters of Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) in the Shodoshima Islet, centra Japan. The 7th sogo-seminar of Japanese Primate Research. May 20-21, 2006. Aichi Prefecture, Japan
-- Eye colours in Japanese Macaques. Fusui International Primates Symposium (FSIPS). March.26-27, 2006. Guilin city, China
-- Incidences of Sichuan Snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus roxellana) falling from trees. The 9th symposium of Wildlife Conservation Society. Dec 12 -14, 2003. Aichi Prefecture, Japan
-- Social organization of the Sichuan snub-nosed monkey in the Qinling Mountains, China. The 19th congress of the International Primatological Society. Beijing city, China
FRC, PRI, KYOTO UNIV.