Assessing Chimpanzee Personality and Subjective Well-Being in Japan
Weiss, Miho Inoue-Murayama, Kyung-Won Hong, Eiji Inoue, Toshifumi
Udono,Tomomi Ochiai, Tetsuro Matsuzawa, Satoshi Hirata, AND James E. King
We tested whether the cultural background of raters influenced ratings of chimpanzee personality. Our
study involved comparing personality and subjective well-being ratings of 146 chimpanzees in Japan
that were housed in zoos, research institutes, and a retirement sanctuary to ratings of chimpanzees in
US and Australian zoos. Personality ratings were made on a translated and expanded version of a
questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. Subjective well-being ratings were
made on a translated version of a questionnaire used to rate chimpanzees in the US and Australia. The
mean interrater reliabilities of the 43 original adjectives did not markedly differ between the present
sample and the original sample of 100 zoo chimpanzees in the US. Interrater reliabilities of these
samples were highly correlated, suggesting that their rank order was preserved. Comparison of the
factor structures for the Japanese sample and for the original sample of chimpanzees in US zoos
indicated that the overall structure was replicated and that the Dominance, Extraversion,
Conscientiousness, and Agreeableness domains clearly generalized. Consistent with earlier studies,
older chimpanzees had higher Dominance and lower Extraversion and Openness scores. Correlations
between the six domain scores and subjective well-being were comparable to those for chimpanzees
housed in the US and Australia. These findings suggest that chimpanzee personality ratings are not
affected by the culture of the raters. Am. J. Primatol. 71:283–292, 2009.
American Journal of Primatology 71:283–292 (2009)
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