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京都大学霊長類研究所 2009 年度共同利用研究会

第5回犬山国際比較社会認知シンポジウム

            
日時: 2009 年 12 月19 日(土) 13:00〜18:15
12 月20 日(日) 9:00〜16:00

場所: 京都大学霊長類研究所大会議室


クリックで拡大します

 これまで4回にわたって、社会的認知の比較研究とその関連領域に関する共同利用研究会を開催してきました。はじめの3回は個別の大きなテーマを設定しての研究会でしたが、昨年度はより多くの方々による幅広い研究成果を発表していただき、議論を行うという形式をとりました。関連する領域とはいえ手法も対象も異なる研究者が一堂に会して議論と交流を深める本研究会は着実に学界にも認識される存在として成長しつつあります。そこで、今回も第5回という形で特に限定的なトピックを設定することなく、比較社会認知研究および関連する多様な研究領域から幅広く講演者を募り研究会を開催することとなりました。なお、今回は海外からも5名の研究者にご参加いただくことになり、第1回以来の英語による国際シンポジウムとなります。
また、前回同様おこなったポスターセッションも好評だったため、今回も実施いたします。ご希望の方はふるってご参加ください。

プログラム

ポスターセッション

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世話人:友永雅己、林美里、足立幾磨、松井智子(以上霊長研)、板倉昭二(文学研究科)、田中正之(野生動物研究センター)、明和政子(教育学研究科)

学外協力者:開一夫(東京大学)、杉浦元亮(東北大学)、佐藤徳(富山大学)

共催:京都大学グローバルCOEプログラム「心が活きるための国際的拠点」

講演予定者(ABCJun)
Christoph Dahl (マックスプランク生物サイバネティクス研究所)
Pier P. Ferrari (パルマ大学)
藤井直敬 (理研BSI)
J. Kiley Hamlin (イエール大学)
板垣俊 (東京大学)
兼子峰明 (京都大学霊長類研究所)
狩野文浩 (京都大学霊長類研究所)
小林春美 (東京電機大学)
倉岡康治 (京都大学霊長類研究所)
楠本ひろみ (九州大学)
森口佑介 (上越教育大学)
森本陽 (京都大学)
直井望 (京都大学)
大嶋百合子 (マギル大学)
Jeniffer J. Pokorny (エモリー大学)
Hyun-Joo Song (延世大学)
時本楠緒子 (理研BSI)
山本真也 (東京大学/林原類人猿研究センター)

問い合わせ先(ポスター参加募集):友永雅己( )

 


宿泊のご案内

犬山駅周辺のビジネスホテルは下記のようなものがございます。

詳しくは、犬山観光案内所 http://inuyama.gr.jp/index.php(Tel 0568-61-6000)や、
犬山市のホームページ http://www.city.inuyama.aichi.jp/をご利用下さい。

犬山シティホテル(ビジネスホテル) http://www.inuyama-hotel.co.jp/

収容人数………79名
部屋数…………53室
料金……………シングルA:6,500円/シングルB:7,000円/ダブル:10,000円/ツイン:11,000円(税・サービス込み)
交通……………名鉄犬山駅西口より徒歩で3分
駐車場…………30台
問い合わせ……犬山シティホテル TEL 0568-61-1600

犬山セントラルホテル(ビジネスホテル) http://www.inuyama-central-h.co.jp/

収容人数………136名
部屋数…………113室
料金……………シングル:6,800円/ツイン:12,000円/ダブル:11,000円(税込み)
交通……………名鉄犬山駅西口より徒歩で1分
駐車場…………20台
問い合わせ……犬山セントラルホテル TEL 0568-61-6611 

犬山ミヤコホテル(ビジネスホテル)http://www.jin.ne.jp/miyako/  

収容人数………50名
部屋数…………和室4室/シングル24室/ツイン8室
料金……………シングル:6,300円〜/ツイン:11,000円〜(税・サービス込み)
交通……………名鉄犬山駅西口より徒歩で3分
駐車場…………20台
問い合わせ……犬山ミヤコホテル TEL 0568-62-0164

名鉄犬山ホテル http://www.m-inuyama-h.co.jp/

収容人数………400名
部屋数…………洋室92室/和室34室
料金……………1泊 12,000円〜(税別)
交通……………名鉄犬山遊園駅より徒歩で約7分
駐車場…………200台/バス20台
問い合わせ……名鉄犬山ホテル TEL 0568-61-2211

google map 犬山駅周辺 http://maps.google.co.jp/maps?sourceid=navclient-ff&ie=UTF-8&rlz=1B3GGGL_jaJP212JP213&um=1&q=%E7%8A%AC%E5%B1%B1%E3%80%80%E3%83%9B%E3%83%86%E3%83%AB&fb=1&view=text&sa=X&oi=local_group&resnum=4&ct=more-results&cd=1

 

 

 

 


Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Symposium of Coopertaive Research Program 2009:
5th International Inuyama Comparative Social Cognition Symposium (iCS2:5)
Saturday, December 19 . Sunday, December 20, 2009
Large Conference Room, Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Inuyama, Aichi, Japan

これまで4 回にわたって,社会的認知の比較研究とその関連領域に関する共同利用研究会
を開催してきました.はじめの3 回は個別の大きなテーマを設定しての研究会でしたが,
昨年度はより多くの方々による幅広い研究成果を発表していただき,議論を行うという形
式をとりました.関連する領域とはいえ手法も対象も異なる研究者が一堂に会して議論と
交流を深める本研究会は着実に学界にも認識される存在として成長しつつあります.そこ
で,今回も第5 回という形で特に限定的なトピックを設定することなく,比較社会認知研
究および関連する多様な研究領域から幅広く講演者を募り研究会を開催することとなりま
した.なお,今回は海外からも5 名の研究者にご参加いただくことになり,第1 回以来の
英語による国際シンポジウムとなります.


Organizers (Kyoto University): Masaki Tomonaga, Misato Hayashi, Ikuma Adachi, Tomoko Matsui
    (Primate Research Institute), Shoji Itakura (Graduate School of Letters), Masayuki Tanaka
    (Wildlife Research Center), Masako Myowa (Graduate School of Education)

Collaborators: Kazuo Hiraki (University of Tokyo), Motoaki Sugiura (Tohoku University), Atsushi
    Sato (University of Toyama)

Hosted by Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University and Kyoto University Global COE Program:
    Revitalizing Education for Dynamic Hearts and Minds


Program

Saturday, December 19

12:00.13:00 Registration
13:00.13:05 Opening remarks

Session 1(Chair: Masaki Tomonaga)

13:05.13:40 O1 Psychological reasoning in infancy
    Hyun-joo Song (Yonsei University)
13:40.14:05 O2 Young children’s social learning from a robot
    Yusuke Moriguchi (Joetsu University of Education)
14:05.14:40 O3 The enemy of my enemy is my friend: Infants interpret social  behaviors in context
    Jane Kiley Hamlin (Yale University)
14:40.15:05 O4 Relative contributions of kinematical information and goal  representation for perception of self‐agency in humans and
    chimpanzees
    Takaaki Kaneko, Masaki Tomonaga (Kyoto University)
15:05.15:30 O5 Chimpanzees’ flexible helping upon request
    Shinya Yamamoto (University of Tokyo)
15:30.16:55 Tea break and poster session

Session 2(Chair: Ikuma Adachi)

16:55.17:30 O6 Social cognition in capuchin monkeys: Individual recognition from faces
    Jennifer J. Pokorny (Yerkes National Primate Research Center)
17:30.18:15 O7 Mirroring other minds. New insights from neuroscience to understand monkey cognitive development
    Pier Francesco Ferrari (University of Parma)
18:30 Banquet

Sunday, December 20

8:30.9:00 Registration

Session 3(Chair: Tomoko Matsui)

9:00.9:35 O8 Language acquisition from a social cognitive perspective: How children learn word meanings with non‐linguistic cues
    Harumi Kobayashi (Tokyo Denki University)
9:35.10:00 O9 Communicative behavior reflecting the perception of others’ cognitive environment in infancy
    Hiromi Kusumoto (Kyushu University)
10:00.10:25 O10 Assessing cortical response to infant‐directed speech in high‐risk neonates
    Nozomi Naoi (JST; Kyoto University)
10:25.11:00 O11 Early word learning in young children
    Yuriko Oshima-Takane (McGill University)
11:00.11:10 Tea break

Session 4(Chair: Ikuma Adachi)

11:10.11:35 O12 Object manipulation by a social rodent, degu (Octodon degus)
    Naoko Tokimoto (RIKEN BSI)
11:35.12:00 O13 Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) understand emotional meanings in conspecifics expression?
    Yo Morimoto (Kyoto University)
12:00.13:15 Lunch and poster session

Session 5(Chair: Masaki Tomonaga)

13:15.13:50 O14 Body scheme and social rule
    Naotaka Fujii (RIKEN BSI)
13:50.14:15 O15 The comparative eye‐tracking study in chimpanzees and humans
    Fumihiro Kano, Masaki Tomonaga (Kyoto University)
14:15.14:40 O16 Human error processing interacts with social information: Evidence from ERP studies
    Shun Itagaki (University of Tokyo)
14:40.15:05 O17 Autonomic reaction and neuronal response to facial expression and vocalization
    Koji Kuraoka (Kyoto University)
15:05.15:40 O18 The behavioral hallmarks of face processing in man and monkey
    Christoph D. Dahl (Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics)
15:40.16:00 General discussion
16:00.16:10 Closing remarks

 


Poster session

P1 Cross‐modal representations of familiar conspecifics in rhesus monkeys
Ikuma Adachi1, Robert R. Hampton2 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2
Department of Psychology, Emory University)

P2 Visual search for emergent features in chimpanzees
Kazuhiro Goto1, Masaki Tomonaga2, & Tomoko Imura2 (1 Kokoro Research Center, Kyoto University; 2 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University)

P3 Scannig others’ social cues in chimpanzees and humans
Yuko Hattori1,2, Fumihiro Kano1,2, Masaki Tomonaga1 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science)

P4 The change of power in a chimpanzee: The investigation of relations between individuals
Mari Hirosawa1, Naomi Suzuki2, Ikuma Adachi1 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University)

P5 Double tactile sensations evoked by a single visual stimulus on a rubber hand
Motoyasu Honma1, Shinichi Koyama2, Yoshihisa Osada1 (1 College of Contemporary Psychology, Rikkyo University; 2 Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University)

P6 Effect of optic‐flow on navigating virtual 3D‐mazes
Tomoko Imura1, Nobu Shirai2 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Department of Psychology, Niigata University)

P7 Social relationships and interactions in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys
Yuta Ishiguro1, Hiroe Kamanaru2, Mitsunori Nagao2, Hiroki Yamamoto, Masayuki Tanaka1 (1 Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University; 2 Kyoto City Zoo)

P8 Estimation of anxiety using eye movement at photograph appreciation
Tadanobu Kamijo1, Maho Oki2, Hideyuki Takahashi3 (1 Graduate School of Engineering, Tamagawa University; 2 Graduate School of Humanities and Sciences ,Ochanomizu Univesity; 3 Tamagawa University Brain Science Institute)

P9 The correspondent link between action prediction and motor ability in early infancy
Yasuhiro Kanakogi, Shoji Itakura (Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University)

P10 Inter‐institutional transfer in captive chimpanzees: A case study of relationships among behavior, personality, and “Quality of Life”
Akitsugu Konno1, Naruki Morimura2,3, Masayuki Tanaka2,4, Toshifumi Udono3, Kaname Okahashi4, Yuki Yamamoto4, Masayuki Matsunaga4, Fumio Ito4, Mihi Inoue-Murayama2, Toshikazu Hasegawa1, Masaki Tomonaga5 (1 Graduate School of Arts and Science, University of Tokyo; 2 Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University; 3 The Chimpanzee Sanctuary Uto; 4 Kyoto City Zoo; 5 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University)

P11 Online processing of speech prosody in children with autism spectrum disorders: An eye‐tracking study
Yui Miura1,2, Tomoko Matsui1, Yoshikuni Tojo3, Hiroo Osanai4 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Scicence; 3 Department of Education, Ibaraki University; 4 Musashino Higashi Education Center)

P12 EEG revealed two phases in visual self‐recognition: Sharpening and facilitation
Makoto Miyakoshi, Noriaki Kanayama, Tetsuya Iidaka, Toshiharu Nakai, Hideki Ohira (Functional Brain Imaging Lab, Department of Gerontechnology, National Center for Geriatrics
and Gerontology)

P13 Do monkeys recognize when others care about them?
Chizuko Murai (Brain Science Institute of Tamagawa)

P14 Bilingual advantage of conversational understanding: A comparison between English‐Japanese bilingual children and Japanese monolingual children
Yuko Okumura1, Michael Siegal2,3, Shoji Itakura1 (1 Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University; 2 Department of Psychology, University of Trieste; 3 Department of Psychology, University of Sheffield)

P15 Brain development in chimpanzees: A longitudinal MRI study
Tomoko Sakai1, Akichika Mikami2, Daichi Hirai3, Takeshi Nishimura3, Juri Suzuki3, Yuzuru Hamada3, Masaki Tomonaga3, Masayuki Tanaka4, Takako Miyabe3, Masato Nakatsukasa1, Tetsuro Matsuzawa3 (1 Graduate School of Science, Kyoto University; 2 Faculty of Human Well-Being, Chubu Gakuin University; 3 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 4 Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University)

P16 Manual laterality in object manipulation in substrate use by captive capuchin monkeys (Cebus sp.)
Yoshiaki Sato1,2, Yui Fujimori3, Misato Hayashi1 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; 3 Faculty of Applied Biological Sciences, Gifu University)

P17 Cerebral dominance for self information in handwritten shapes: An ERP study
Reiko Sawada1,2, Yui Miura1,2, Nobuo Masataka1 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science)

P18 What we know about the left holding newborn side?
Celine Scola (Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University)

P19 Mother’s mind‐mindedness could foster child’s mentalising abilities? False belief and emotion understanding
Ikuko Shinohara (Shiraume Gakuen College)

P20 Asymmetric perception of radial expansion/contraction in Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata) infants
Nobu Shirai1, Tomoko Imura2, Yuko Hattori2, Ikuma Adachi2, Shigeru Ichihara3, So Kanazawa4, Masami K. Yamaguchi5, Masaki Tomonaga2 (1 Department of Psychology, Niigata University; 2 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 3 Graduate School of Humanities, Tokyo Metropolitan University; 4 Graduate School of Integrated Arts and Social Sciences, Japan Women’s University; 5 Department of Psychology, Chuo University)

P21 Group learning of a computer‐based task in zoo chimpanzees
Masayuki Tanaka1, Masayuki Matsunaga2, Fumio Ito2, Yuki Yamamoto2, Sachiko Kunimoto1 (1 Wildlife Research Center of Kyoto University; 2 Kyoto City Zoo)

P22 Why so difficult to discriminate human gaze directions for chimpanzees?
Masaki Tomonaga1 and Takaaki Kaneko1,2 (1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science)

P23 Motion judgment in infant macaque monkeys (Macaca fuscata)
Sota Watanabe1,2, Masaki Tomonaga3, & Kazuo Fujita1 (1 Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; 3 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University)

 


Abstracts

O1 Psychological reasoning in infancy
    Hyun-joo Song
    Department of Psychology, Yonsei University
A series of my experiments have revealed some evidence for infants’ ability to reason about others’ psychological processes. First, by 9.5 months, infants can reason about others’ dispositions to do a particular action. Second, by 12 months, infants can use verbal information when inferring others’ goals. Third, 14.5 months, infants understand that others can be misled by false perceptions. Fourth, by 18.5 months, infants can understand that others’ false beliefs can be corrected by appropriate communications. These findings add to emerging evidence on infants’ sensitivity to others’ internal states.

O2 Young children’s social learning from a robot
    Yusuke Moriguchi
    Graduate School of Education, Joetsu University of Education
It is generally assumed that young children learn new actions and language from another person. Recent research, however, has shown that children can learn new actions and skills from nonhuman agents. This study builds upon previous research and seeks to examine whether children could learn actions and words from a robot. In study 1, we examined whether children automatically imitated a robot’s actions. The results revealed that children did not automatically imitate the robot’s actions, but they did imitate when prompted to do so. Study 2 examined whether children can learn words from a robot. Children were shown a video in which either a woman (a human condition) or a mechanical robot (a robot condition) labeled novel objects. After viewing the video, children were asked to select the target objects that had been identified on the tape. The results revealed that children in the robot condition performed significantly above chance level although children tested with the human condition performed better than those tested with the robot condition. The results of two studies suggested that children have the potential to learn actions and words from a robot, but
the way they learn from a robot is different from the way from a human. In the further research, we will examine the neural basis of the learning from a robot.

O3 The enemy of my enemy is my friend: Infants interpret social behaviors in context
    Jane Kiley Hamlin
    Department of Psychology, Yale University
Recent research suggests that young infants prefer prosocial to antisocial individuals (Hamlin, Wynn, & Bloom, 2007). While a preference for those who help others is certainly adaptive, there are potentially situations in which unhelpful behavior is more appropriate (e.g. punishing others for their wrongdoing) or more socially diagnostic (e.g. “The enemy of my enemy is my friend” Aronson & Cope, 1968; Gawronski et al, 2005; Heider, 1958). This talk examines whether infants always prefer those who are prosocial, in contexts in which antisocial behavior could be seen as punishment, or in which an individual’s antisocial behavior may be an indication that he or she shares a negative opinion toward a disfavored other.

O4 Relative contributions of kinematical information and goal representation for  perception of self‐agency in humans and chimpanzees
    Takaaki Kaneko1,2, Masaki Tomonaga2
    1 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; 2 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
Humans distinctly recognize an event which caused by the self from other events, namely the perception of self-agency which allow us to establish the concept of self as a being independent agent. Previous our study showed chimpanzees share similar cognitive function. In this study, we aimed to reveal species unique features of this cognitive function by comparing humans and chimpanzees. In particular, we investigated the relative contributions of kinematical information or goal representation as a cue for the self/other differentiation. It is known that chimpanzees and humans employ different strategies for a coding of other’s action in a context of imitation, that is chimpanzees have difficulties in copying of other’s motor action but they could do reproduce other’s goals. These difference may reflect the difference in the perception of own voluntary action, however, none of study have addressed this matter before. Here we show that the chimpanzees have
difficulty in discrimination of agency when goal representation was insufficient cue of the discrimination but the humans do not.
In our experiments, two of cursors were shown on the monitor and one of which were moved by the computer and the other could be controlled by the participants using the trackball device. The participants were required to detect the cursor which they could move and hit either target shown on the monitor. The time to detect the self cursor was increased as the percentage of a case in which the target the distracter cursor moved toward was accidentally correspond with the target the participant aimed to hit was increased, and this was only observed in chimpanzees but not in humans.

O5 Chimpanzees’ flexible helping upon request
    Shinya Yamamoto
    Japan Society for the Promotion of Science; Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of
    Tokyo; Great Ape Research Institute, Hayashibara Biochemical Laboratories, Inc.
The evolution of altruism has been explained mainly from ultimate perspectives. However, it remains to be investigated from a proximate point of view how and in which situations such social propensity is achieved. We investigated chimpanzees’ helping behavior in a tool-transfer paradigm, and discuss the similarities and differences in altruism between humans and chimpanzees. Previously it has been suggested that chimpanzees help human experimenters by retrieving an object which the experimenter is trying to reach. In the present study, we investigated the importance of communicative interactions between chimpanzees themselves and the influence of conspecific partner’s request on chimpanzees’ altruism. We presented two tool-use situations (a stick-use situation and a straw-use situation) in two adjacent booths, and supplied non-corresponding tools to
paired chimpanzees in the two booths. For example, a chimpanzee in the stick-use situation was supplied with a straw, and the partner in the straw-use situation possessed a stick. Spontaneous tool transfer was observed between paired chimpanzees. The tool giving events occurred predominantly following recipients’ request. Even without any hope of reciprocation from the partner, the chimpanzees continued to help the partner as long as the partner required. We also found that the giver chose an appropriate tool from a selection of seven objects for transfer to their partner to obtain an otherwise inaccessible food reward. These results indicate that chimpanzees altruistically help others upon request without pursuing personal benefits. It is also suggested that chimpanzees have an ability to understand others’ request and needs. This is the first experimental study reporting chimpanzees’ flexible helping behavior. Thus the implication for the differences between
chimpanzees and humans is that voluntary altruism with highly accurate understanding and knowledge of others’ desires is a unique human trait.

O6 Social cognition in capuchin monkeys: Individual recognition from faces
    Jennifer J. Pokorny
    Yerkes National Primate Research Center, Emory University
Nonhuman primates live in socially complex groups that require recognition of individuals with whom they interact. Humans typically use faces to extract information such as the identity of an individual, whom we can then determine is either familiar or unfamiliar. We examined the ability of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) to discriminate and recognize conspecific faces using a computerized oddity task. We demonstrated that capuchins not only recognize familiar and unfamiliar conspecific faces, but that they can also identify familiar individuals depicted in the images. This was done by having subjects select the one in-group member as odd among three out-group members and vice versa. The monkeys correctly determined which faces were in-group versus out-group members, corresponding to their real-life experience. This indicates that capuchins recognize the identity of individuals whom they see in a picture and understand the representational nature of two-dimensional images.

O7 Mirroring other minds. New insights from neuroscience to understand monkey cognitive development
    Pier Francesco Ferrari
    Department of Evolutionary and Functional Biology; Department of Neuroscience, University of Parma
The discovery of the mirror neuron system in both monkeys and humans challenged the view that action and perception belong to different domains. This finding also had a large impact on several scientific disciplines and raised important questions about their possible functions in social cognition and development.
Here I will first describe the basic properties of mirror neurons in the ventral premotor cortex and the inferior parietal lobule in the macaque monkey and subsequently the mirror neuron system in humans. Secondly, I will present hypotheses about their possible functions in action understanding and imitation, both during infancy and adulthood. Recent neurophysiological data on infant macaques suggest that they are provided at birth with a mirror mechanism probably serving communicative functions. The capacity to match own and others’ behavior now documented in infancy (e.g. neonatal imitation) and so well developed in adulthood, probably reflects the need and ability of monkeys to stay in tune with each others and to synchronize behavioral activities. An empathic connection resulting from behavior matching may have important consequences on social relations and could be at the basis of the development of prosocial behaviors. The foundations of complex forms of communication and imitation that are so well expressed by apes and humans can be tracked in macaques and probably rely on an action-perception core mechanism that is present at birth and subserves early intersubjective exchanges.

O8 Language acquisition from a social cognitive perspective: How children learn
word meanings with non‐linguistic cues
    Harumi Kobayashi
    Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Denki University
Studying origins of language from an ontogenetic, developmental perspective is specially unique and advantageous. The reason is that we can observe at first hand how language appears and changes as time passes. It has been suggested that the most important ability of human children to acquire language is establishing joint attention with other people. Joint attention refers to specifying a certain part of the environment and paying attention to it with other people to share information and emotion about it. Joint attention entails basic structure of language that first specifies what one wants to talk (theme) and what one wants to talk about it (description). Children start activities of triadic interaction that involves child, adult, and object around nine to twelve months of age. The child confirms adult’s line of regard and actively tries to establish joint attention about the interesting aspect of the environment. Emergence of ability of estimating others’ intentions follows the emergence of joint attention at around eighteen months. Because their ability to use linguistic information is limited, they must be able to use non-linguistic social cues. Our laboratory has studied how young children recognize adults’ referential intentions from non-linguistic cues such as gesture, eye gaze, and timing of utterances. We found that young children are sensitive to a variety of non-linguistic cues adults provide and use these cues to know word meanings.

O9 Communicative behavior reflecting the perception of others’ cognitive
environment in infancy
    Hiromi Kusumoto
    Graduate School of Human-Environment Studies, Kyushu University
Humans change their way of communication adapting to the addressees’ conditions of perception, almost automatically, which is assumed to be on the basis of understanding of mutual cognitive environment (Sperber & Wilson, 1995). To clarify the developmental origin of this ability, we investigated whether infants properly modify their communicative behaviors reflecting the partner’s cognitive environment. Previous researches have shown that infants produce more pointing gestures or vocalizations when the recipient’s visual attention was on them than when it was not (e.g.,Liszkowski, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2007; Liszkowski, Albrecht, Carpenter, & Tomasello, 2008).
However, it is still unclear to what extent infants change their modalities of communication flexibly in naturalistic settings. In the present research, 12 and 14-month-olds (N = 16) and their mothers participated and we set up a situation of mother-infant interaction. We inserted two conditions of test trials (where mother did not respond adequately to the infant’s communicative action), into the
baseline trials (where mother responded adequately). Results showed that infants vocalized more frequently in the test trials than in the baseline trials, and the frequency of pointing reduced significantly as trials proceeded in the unavailable condition but not in the other trials. These supported the view that 12- and 14-month-olds modify their communicative behaviors reflecting a recipient’s cognitive environment and somehow understand the effectiveness of each modality of communication.

O10 Assessing cortical response to infant‐directed speech in high‐risk neonates
    Nozomi Naoi
    JST/ERATO; Graduate School of Education, Kyoto University
A number of behavioral studies suggest young infants are more likely to attend to infant-directed speech than to adult-directed speech. To evaluate the effects of prenatal and postnatal experience on neonates’ speech processing, we examined cerebral responses to infant-directed speech in neonates in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS).

O11 Early word learning in young children
    Yuriko Oshima-Takane
    Department of Psychology, McGill University
A growing body of research has shown that young infants are able to use morphosyntactic information in input to categorize new words into grammatical categories such as nouns and verbs (Mintz, et al., 2002). Furthermore, recent research has demonstrated that children under 2 years of age are able to use morphosyntactic cues to map new words onto their referents after only minimal exposure to the word-event pairings without contextual or social support (Echols & Marti, 2004; Oshima-Takane et al., 2008). However, whether young children’s representations of morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early word learning is under debate (Dittmar, et al., 2008; Gertner et al., 2005; Gleitman, 1990; Tomasello, 2003). In this talk, I will examine this issue by presenting two types of habituation data. From one, I will show evidence that children under 2 years of age are able to use both noun and verb morphosyntactic cues in a word learning task in which the novel words have more than one possible interpretation (i.e. agents or actions) and when morphosyntactic cues are not consistent with perceptual cues. From the other, I will provide evidence for an early capability to generalize new verbs to previously unseen instances with a new agent. Based on these findings, I will argue that children’s representations of both noun and verb morphosyntactic information are abstract enough to guide early word learning. However, children’s cognitive resources such as memory, attention, etc. are still limited at early stages of language development (Dapretto & Bjork, 2000; Werker & Fennell, 2004). Hence, young children may fail to access their morphosyntactic knowledge when word learning tasks are too demanding and consume too much of their cognitive resources.

O12 Object manipulation by a social rodent, degu (Octodon degus)
    Naoko Tokimoto
    Labratory for Biolinguisutics, RIKEN Brain Science Institute
It is believed that tool-use is impossible without a cognitive module specific to it. Only a limited number of species, mostly primates and corvids, develop the skills. However, we found that a rodent, degus spontaneously constructed nesting cups by a procedure similar to that of primates. The degu is a highly social and curious animal native to Chile that demonstrates the manual dexterity and forelimb-eye coordination requisite for tool-use. To examine the object manipulation ability of the degus, we trained them to manipulate a rake-like tool with their forelimbs to retrieve a distant food reward.
To train and test the degus, we used a conditioning approach similar to one traditionally used for non-human primates. As a result, degus learned to use the rake as a tool after fifty-seven sessions on average. Furthermore, the trained degus adapted to tools of different sizes, shapes and colors, and they ignored fake-tools that did not work. These results showed that they understand the function of rake-like tools to get a food in a distance. Our findings suggested that the cognitive system necessary for the tool-use was gradually constructed in the environments in which it is indispensable. The tool-use should be recalibrated as the result of a combination of general cognitive faculties rather than a single higher cognitive function. We will discuss the complexity of the object manipulation of the degus.

O13 Do capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) understand emotional meanings in
conspecifics expression?
    Yo Morimoto
    Graduate School of Letters, Kyoto University
Primates are characterized by a variety of facial and vocal expressions and complex social interactions. In their social behaviors such as coalitions or postconflict affiliations, primates may use other’s emotional expression to predict the individual’s subsequent behavior. Among primates, apes have been shown to understand emotional meanings in others’ expressions. In this study, we asked to what extent a New world monkey species, tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) understand other’s emotion. In Experiment 1, we showed that capuchin monkeys in fact modify their behavior according to conspecifics’ emotional expression. However, whether they did it by understanding emotional meanings or by other simpler processes is still unknown. In Experiment 2, we investigated whether capuchin monkeys identify an object which is responsible for other’s expression. Subject monkeys witnessed a stimulus monkey reacting either positively or negatively toward one of two containers. The other container was not shown to the stimulus monkey. Then they were allowed to choose one of the two containers. They preferred the container that had evoked positive expression and avoided the container that had evoked negative expression on the stimulus monkey; that is, the subject monkeys changed their preference toward the containers depending on the partner’s expression. The results are consistent with the view that the monkeys estimated emotional valence of the relevant objects and suggest that representing other’s emotion is not unique to humans and apes.

O14 Body scheme and social rule
    Naotaka Fujii
    Laboratory for Adaptive Intelligence, RIKEN Brain Science Institute
Human beings are social animal. We have developed extremely complex social systems compared to any other species on the earth. What is the most essential behavioral requirement in human being to be a social animal? That is an ability to follow rules that constrain our behavior.
Although there are many studies aimed to reveal neural mechanism of rule dependent social behavior, we still don’t know how the rules emerge in brain and in society, and how such rules are operated. Here, we tried to observe monkeys’ social behavior and neural activity under restrain free social environment to learn mechanism of rule emergence and maintenance in brain. Through the observation of monkeys’ social adaptive behavior under several different social settings, we would like to propose body scheme based social rule representation in monkeys. It could be modified subjectively depending on how monkey recognize context at the moment and applicable to any social environment regardless of contextual variation as a universal mechanism of rule representation. In that sense, parietal cortex seemed to be playing important role in representing social rule as an effective constraint on body scheme. We believe tool use that modulates body scheme might also work as a leverage to make us bring up from monkey’s social brain to higher human level cognition, since it might allow us to have a concept of “mind” that linked the subject and the object of manipulation including the body itself.

O15 The comparative eye‐tracking study in chimpanzees and humans
    Fumihiro Kano1,2, Masaki Tomonaga1
    1 Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University; 2 Japan Society for the Promotion of Science
We will introduce the exciting and novel approach ― the comparative eye-tracking study in chimpanzees and humans. The eye-tracking methodology enables us to compare the eye movements of two species directly (i.e. both qualitatively and quantitatively). First, we will discuss why we are interested in the eye movements of humans and the closest species to humans, chimpanzees. Second, we will show the methods of measuring and analyzing the eye movements of chimpanzees and humans. Third, we will show the accuracy of measurement and discuss how the direct comparisons between species were validated. Fourth, we will show a recent study which clarified how chimpanzees and humans look at faces. Both subjects of chimpanzees and humans viewed a set of scene photographs that contained whole bodies, faces, facial expressions, and so on.
Both species showed highly similar patterns of scanning for faces. For example, both species actively search for faces when presented with whole-body photographs. In addition, both species scanned eyes and mouth in that order when presented with facial photographs. However, the differences between species were also identified. For example, humans more actively searched for the eyes, and chimpanzees more quickly scanned each facial feature, compared to each other. Finally, we discuss how the comparative eye-tracking study contributes to our understandings of chimpanzee/human mind.

O16 Human error processing interacts with social information: Evidence from ERP
studies
    Shun Itagaki
    Graduate School of Arts and Sciences, University of Tokyo
The ability to monitor our own action and to evaluate external information is necessary for us to behave adaptively in socially complex world. We can investigate human cognitive functions by recording electroencephalogram (EEG), and take a glance at underlying neural processing. There exist event-related brain potential (ERP) components that deeply relate to such cognitive function, which are called error-related negativity (ERN) or feedback-related negativity (FRN). These components reflect general error processing originated from the anterior cingulate cortex activation. In this presentation, I propose that human error processing is flexible according to the situation, focusing on how this function is modulated by social knowledge or context, on the basis of the ERN or FRN deflections.
At first, I will talk about methodology of ERP and representative example of previous studies briefly, introducing the key points of the ERN and FRN component. After that, recent some of the experimental data will be shared with you and discussed. Each experimental data indicated that error processing was modulated by the relationship between self and other, the congruency with social knowledge in gambling task, and the interaction with facial expressions in choice reaction task. It is concluded that the human error processing has flexibility interacted with social information.

O17 Autonomic reaction and neuronal response to facial expression and
vocalization
    Koji Kuraoka
    Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University
Facial expressions and vocalizations convey emotional information in primates. Although the receiver of facial expressions and vocalization cues can perceive the internal state of the sender, the emotional information can affect the mental state of the receiver. In this talk, I report autonomic physiological reactions and neuronal responses to facial expression and vocalizations. I measured skin temperature around the nasal region as an indicator of the emotional states of rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). The nasal skin temperature is known to decrease in the state of negative emotion. I found the temperature decreased after presentation of specific facial expressions and vocalizations. I also recorded the neuronal responses in the monkey amygdala to facial expressions and vocalizations. The amygdala has been implicated in emotional processing. Many amygdala neurons showed different responses to different types of emotional expressions, and some neurons responded
to both facial expressions and vocalizations conveying the same meanings. These data suggest that facial expression and vocalization of monkeys evoke emotional reactions in the receiver.

O18 The behavioral hallmarks of face processing in man and monkey
    Christoph D. Dahl
    Physiology of Cognitive Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biological Cybernetics
The face is at the heart of social communication and identification of social status. In the life of primates the object class face receives greater attention than any other object class. Thus it should not come as a surprise that faces are processed differently than objects and that special neural correlates are dedicated to the processing of faces. The question to what extent faces are processed differently when compared with non-face objects has been a major focus of research in humans for the past several decades. Both the behavioral hallmarks of face perception (i.e. holistic processing and subordinate-level entry point) as well as the underlying neural mechanisms have been explored extensively in human studies. While the neural signal derived from single cell recordings has taught us much about the various aspects of face selectivity in the monkey brain, relatively little is known so far about the behavioral abilities with respect to face perception in the monkey.
Here, we employ critical experimental paradigms which were developed for research with humans in combination with eye tracking methods to investigate face processing abilities in monkeys (Macaca mulatta or rhesus macaque) and directly compare them with the abilities of human subjects. With this comparative approach we demonstrate that monkeys and humans employ similar face processing capabilities. Thus, the social importance of faces triggered the development of an extra-processing system for faces that evolved early during primate evolution.