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京都大学霊長類研究所 > 年報のページ > Vol.45  > . 研究教育活動


. 研究教育活動

1. 研究部門及び附属施設

附属施設

国際共同先端研究センター

<研究概要>

A)Comparative Wildlife Biology, Conservation, and the Evolution of Social Systems

Fred Bercovitch

1) A ten-day trip was taken to South Africa for purposes of developing a new collaboration with the University of the Free State to study giraffe conservation, ecology, behavior, and evolution.  We went to three different research sites, where we outfitted four giraffes with a new type of GPS unit that attaches to their ear.  During the immobiliztion process, we discovered that one female who was lactating was also pregnant, thereby confirming for the first time what scientists had only indirectly inferred, i.e., giraffes conceive while nursing.  Our results will appear in a forthcoming publication.

2) A five-week trip was taken to southern Africa for three purposes:  (a) continuation of the earlier trip to review field sites for giraffe conservation science research in South Africa, as well as to prepare manuscripts for publications and grants for submission with my collaborators, (b) attending two meetings in South Africa related to giraffe conservation.  The first was a meeting of the IUCN Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group where we exchanged information about the declining numbers of giraffes in Africa and came up with a plan to petition the IUCN to change the Red List status from "Least Concern" to "Vulnerable".  The second meeting was the biennial meeting of the giraffe community in the form of an "Indaba" that brings together field workers and zoo staff to discuss issues related to giraffe conservation, as well as husbandry, and (c) traveling to Zambia for purposes of continuing my long-term collaboration that involves conducting research, analyzing data, and writing manuscripts on the behavior, ecology, and conservation of Thornicroft’s giraffe living in the South Luangwa National Park.

B) Behavior, Ecology and Conservation of Forest Bats

David Hill

1) Enhancing surveys of bat diversity in tropical rain forest

The Autobat was developed for use in temperate forests. I am now investigating its potential for use in tropical forests in Malaysia and Thailand. Initial efforts are focused on attracting bats of the forest interior that are relatively difficult to capture. The plan is to extend the work to include bats that forage in edge habitats and above the canopy.

2) Population dynamics of the little tube-nosed bat Murina ussuriensis

This species can be common in mature secondary forests in Japan, but it is difficult to find. As it responds very well to the Autobat, it is possible to catch multiple individuals in a small area. DNA samples can be obtained before the bats are released, and genetic analysis is used to examine patterns of dispersal, relatedness within and between groups and the effects of habitat fragmentation.

C) チンパンジーを対象にした比較認知研究

足立幾磨・服部裕子

チンパンジーを対象に, 社会的認知能力、とくにその基盤となる同調行動や、顔知覚様式・個体情報の視聴覚統合にかかわる比較発達研究をおこなった。また、言語の進化的起源を明らかにするため、感覚間一致について分析をおこなった。おもにコンピューターを用いた認知課題の成績および、各種の視覚刺激提示時の注視行動の分析をおこなった。

D) 動物園のチンパンジーの知性の研究

足立幾磨

名古屋市の東山動物園のチンパンジー1群7個体を対象に、屋外運動場での社会行動を観察記録した。また、隣接する実験ブース「パンラボ」において、コンピュータ課題をもちい彼らの知性を分析した。

E) Complexity, Behavioral Organization and Ecological Constraints

Andrew MacIntosh

This research investigates the organization of animal behavior in relation to ecological constraints across two scales: (1) using sequences of individual behavior and (2) using networks of interacting individuals and species. First, sequences of individual behavior (e.g. from primates and penguins) are analyzed to determine natural optimal complexity ranges and what impacts ecological (and other) stressors can have on their fractal structure. This work is in collaboration with the University of Strasbourg, the French Polar Institute (IPEV) and the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. Second, networks of interacting individuals (Japanese macaques at Koshima, Miyazaki) and species (sympatric primates in Sabah, Malaysia) are examined to determine the role of networks in parasite transmission dynamics (supported by a 3-year JSPS grant-in-aid for young scientists (B) as of April 2012). Work in Sabah is in collaboration with the Sabah Wildlife Department, Cardiff University and the Danau Girang Field Center, the Universiti Malysia Sabah and the Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme HUTAN.

F) チンパンジー、ボノボに関する研究

Mike Seres

-While working on the transfer of 1.1. Bonobos from the Cincinnati Zoo, I gave an invited presentation, titled “40 Years in ‘Pan Collage’ – Learning from Chimpanzee Professors in Captive Settings”  to the zoo staff.

-Delivered two Bonobos, along with a Cincinnati Zoo Bonobo Keeper to Japan (Higashiyama Zoo Quarantine Facility) from the Cincinnati Zoo in Ohio State, USA, escorting them on a cargo plane.

-At KS I have been regularly assisting Drs. S. Yamamoto & F. Kano with their research on Bonobos: touch-panel tests, eye-tracking tests, food-sharing tests, juice-dipping tests, (involving Chimpanzees) respectively.

-As a Chimpanzee EEP Introduction Advisor I have been very active and busy helping EAZA with all their Chimpanzee introductions, integrations of male and female as well as juvenile individuals, a volunteer work. Due to the conservation effort of the West African Chimpanzee (Pan t. verus) in captivity, many European Zoos relocate and re-socialize their P.t.v. population that involves a large number of Chimpanzees and Zoos that require expert advice in introduction procedures and management.

I actively continue giving advice for free, as one of the appointed EEP Introduction Advisor besides my daily duties at the Kumamoto Sanctuary.

G)ブータンに関する調査研究

西澤和子

ブータン王国のNational Referral Hospitalにて新生児診療に携わり、現地の新生児医療の現状と課題につき調査研究を行った。

H) Experimental investigation of cultural transmission of arbitrary communicative gestures in Japanese macaques

Claire Watson

Arbitrary pairings between form and function form the basis of human communication, therefore understanding social traditions in other primates offers insight into the evolutionary origins of human social communication and culture. Reports of potentially cultural gestures are accumulating in apes and more recently monkeys, however, we lack systematic experimental evidence indicating that any species of nonhuman primate is capable of learning the meaning of any truly social, communicative behaviour through observation of conspecifics. I carried out an experimental study investigating cultural transmission of an arbitrary gesture in Japanese macaques using the group diffusion paradigm. I examined whether Japanese macaques would attend to, and whether they could copy, a novel attention-getting action demonstrated by a trained conspecific in a social (begging) context. Research was carried out at the Research Resource Station of Kyoto University Primate Research Institute.

I) テナガザルおよびフクロテナガザルに関する研究

Luca Morino

My current research analyses lateralized behavior in hylobatids (gibbons and siamangs), with a focus on a possible correlation with singing activity. Its main purpose is to shed light on the behavioral and neurological processes surrounding the evolution of complex communication. This study is conducted on Japanese gibbons in collaboration with Prof. Matsuzawa and Bercovitch (PRI), and is funded by a short-term JSPS postdoctoral fellowship. Additionally, I coordinate long-term research on wild siamangs in Sumatra (Indonesia) in collaboration with Dr. Lappan (Appalachian State University), and analyze data derived from it.

<研究業績>

原著論文

1) Andrew James Jonathan MacIntosh (2014) The Fractal Primate: interdisciplinary science and the math behind the monkey. Primate Research,30,1,95-119.

2) Andrew James Jonathan MacIntosh (2014) Ecology and epidemiology of nematode infection in Japanese macaques: building an empirical model. Primate Research,30,1,23-51.

3) Fred B. Bercovitch, Francois Deacon, Francois Deacon (2015) Gazing at a giraffe gyroscope: Where are we going? African Journal of Ecology,53,135-146.

4) Fred B. Bercovitch, Philip S M Berry (2015) Giraffe birth locations in the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia: Site fidelity or microhabitat selection? African Journal of Ecology,53,206-213.

5) Fred B. Bercovitch, Philip S M Berry (2015) The composition and function of all-male herds of Thornicroft's giraffe, Giraffa camelopardalis thornicrofti, in Zambia. African Journal of Ecology,53,167-174.

6) Hill David A, Fukui Dai, Agetsuma Naoki, MacIntosh Andrew J. J (2014) Influence of trap environment on the effectiveness of an acoustic lure for capturing vespertilionid bats in two temperate forest zones in Japan. Mammal Study,39,4,229-236.

7) M. Cottin; A.J.J. MacIntosh; A. Kato; A. Takahashi; M. Debin; T. Raclot; Y. Ropert-Coudert (2014) Corticosterone administration leads to a transient alteration of foraging behaviour and complexity in a diving seabird. Marine Ecology Progress Series,496,249-262.

8) Marisa Hoeschele, Hugo Merchant, Yukiko Kikuchi, Yuko Hattori, Carel ten Cate (2015) Searching for the origins of musicality across species. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences,370,1664,20140094-20140094.

9) Pasquaretta Cristian, Leve Marine, Claidiere Nicolas, van de Waal Erica, Whiten Andrew, MacIntosh Andrew J. J, Pele Marie, Bergstrom Mackenzie L, Borgeaud Christele, Brosnan Sarah F, Crofoot Margaret C, Fedigan Linda M, Fichtel Claudia, Hopper Lydia M, Ma (2014) Social networks in primates: smart and tolerant species have more efficient networks. Scientific Reports,4.

10) Philip S M Berry, Fred B. Bercovitch, Fred B. Bercovitch (2015) Leadership of herd progressions in the Thornicroft's giraffe of Zambia. African Journal of Ecology,53,175-182.

11) Yan Ropert-Coudert, Akiko Kato, Xavier Meyer, Marie Pellé, Andrew J J Macintosh, Frédéric Angelier, Olivier Chastel, Michel Widmann, Ben Arthur, Ben Raymond, Ben Raymond, Thierry Raclot (2015) A complete breeding failure in an Adélie penguin colony correlates with unusual and extreme environmental events. Ecography,38,111-113.

12) 足立幾磨 (2014/07) ものの順序と空間のふしぎな関係. 科学,84,7,754-755.

学会発表

1) de Paula VR, Duboscq J, Sueur C, MacIntosh A (2014) Modelling disease transmission in primate networks to predict epidemics. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

2) Duboscq J, Sueur C, Romano De Paula V, MacIntosh A (2014) Pseudoectoparasites: a promising tool for the study of parasite transmission in relation to social networks. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

3) Hill DA, Anuar S, MacIntosh AJJ, Ghazali A (2014) Acoustic lure gives increased efficiency for short-term surveys of bat diversity in tropical rainforest. The 13th European Bat Research Symposium, Sibenik, Croatia.

4) Huffman MA, Mori H, Kawai S, Nahallage CAD, MacIntosh AJJ (2014) The human-primate interface: on-going zoonoses monitoring in Southeast Asia. The 4th International Congress on Asian Primates, Kyoto University and Bogor Agricultural University International_ Symposium, Bogor, Indonesia.

5) MacIntosh AJJ (2014) A field-experimental approach to primate-parasite interactions: filling in the knowledge-gaps. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

6) MacIntosh AJJ, Kato A, Ropert-Coudert Y (2014) Logging Complexity: ecological challenges and the emergence of behavioral organization.. Bio-logging Science 5, Strasbourg, France.

7) Morino L, MacIntosh AJJ (2014) Gibbon songs and intergroup dynamics: a community-level network analysis. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

8) Sarabian C, MacIntosh A (2014) In the dirt: hygienic behaviours and revulsion as parasite avoidance adaptations in Japanese macaques. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

9) Sueur C, Pasquaretta C, Leve M, Claidiere N, van de Waal E, MacIntosh AJ, Pele M, Whiten A (2014) Information transmission efficiency in primate networks. The 25th Congress of the International Primatological Society, Hanoi, Vietnam.

10) Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga and Tetsuro Matsuzawa (2014/07) Spontaneous auditory-motor entrainment during self-paced tapping in chimpanzees and humans. 13th International Conference on Music Perception and Cognition (ICMPC).

11) 服部裕子,友永雅己、松沢哲郎 (2014/07) Spontaneous auditory motor entrainment in chimpanzees and humans. 第74回日本動物心理学会.

講演

1) 足立幾磨 (2014/09/13) 感覚間一致の比較認知科学. 第78回日本心理学会.

2) 足立幾磨 (2014/07/19) Spatial mapping of orders in chimpanzees. The 74th Annual Meeting of Japanese Society for Animal Psychology.

3) MacIntosh AJJ (2014) Complexity lost: assessing behavioural organization in stress and disease[Invited]. Central European Institute of Technology mini-symposium and HPI-lab workshop,University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Czech Republic.