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京都大学霊長類研究所 > 年報のページ > Vol.46  > . 研究教育活動


. 研究教育活動

1. 研究部門及び附属施設

附属施設

国際共同先端研究センター

霊長類研究所は,霊長類に関する基礎研究を総合的に推進するために,国際的かつ先端的な共同研究を推進するための附属施設を2009年(平成21年)4月1日に新設した.外国人学生の獲得のため、英語による国際入試を運営するとともに、国際共同研究の推進および、学生教育として毎週Science Communicationにかかわるワークショップを開催している。また、2015年度はPRIインターン制度と称したインターン受け入れ制度を立ち上げるとともに、マニュアルの整備をした。また、平成27年度京都大学国際化支援体制強化事業による支援経費を獲得し、このプログラムと連動させることで、数多くのインターンを受け入れた。例年欧米からの4名程度の受け入れであったものが、本年度は総数25名(欧州11名、北米3名、アジア11名)を受け入れ飛躍的に事業を拡大した。さらに、リーディング大学院の入試を主導した。具体的には、英語によるポスター発表および面接を課すことで、これまでの経歴、今後の目的、英語によるコミュニケーション能力を評価した。結果、8名の履修生を新たに決定し、合計12名となった。各人の海外の各種研修先へ派遣も開始した。

<研究概要>

A) Comparative Wildlife Biology, Conservation, and the Evolution of Social Systems
Fred Bercovitch
A five-week trip was taken to southern Africa for three purposes: (a) continuation of an earlier trip to review field sites for giraffe conservation science research in South Africa, as well as to prepare manuscripts for publications and grants for submission with my collaborators, (b) attending two meetings in South Africa related to giraffe conservation. The first was a meeting of the IUCN Giraffe and Okapi Specialist Group where we exchanged information about the declining numbers of giraffes in Africa and came up with a plan to petition the IUCN to change the Red List status from "Least Concern" to "Vulnerable". The second meeting was the biennial meeting of the giraffe community in the form of an "Indaba" that brings together field workers and zoo staff to discuss issues related to giraffe conservation, as well as husbandry, and (c) traveling to Zambia for purposes of continuing my long-term collaboration that involves conducting research, analyzing data, and writing manuscripts on the behavior, ecology, and conservation of Thornicroft's giraffe living in the South Luangwa National Park.

B) チンパンジーを対象にした比較認知研究
足立幾磨・服部裕子
チンパンジーを対象に, 社会的認知能力、とくにその基盤となる同調行動や、顔知覚様式・個体情報の視聴覚統合にかかわる比較発達研究をおこなった。また、言語の進化的起源を明らかにするため、感覚間一致について分析をおこなった。おもにコンピューターを用いた認知課題の成績および、各種の視覚刺激提示時の注視行動の分析をおこなった。

C) 動物園のチンパンジーの知性の研究
足立幾磨
名古屋市の東山動物園のチンパンジー1群7個体を対象に、屋外運動場での社会行動を観察記録した。また、隣接する実験ブース「パンラボ」において、コンピュータ課題をもちい彼らの知性を分析した。

D) Complexity, Behavioral Organization and Ecological Constraints
Andrew MacIntosh
This research investigates the organization of animal behavior in relation to ecological constraints across two scales: (1) using sequences of individual behavior and (2) using networks of interacting individuals and species. First, sequences of individual behavior (e.g. from primates and penguins) are analyzed to determine natural optimal complexity ranges and what impacts ecological (and other) stressors can have on their fractal structure. This work is in collaboration with the University of Strasbourg, the French Polar Institute (IPEV) and the University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Brno, Czech Republic. Second, networks of interacting individuals (Japanese macaques at Koshima, Miyazaki) and species (sympatric primates in Sabah, Malaysia) are examined to determine the role of networks in parasite transmission dynamics (supported by a 3-year JSPS grant-in-aid for young scientists (B) as of April 2012). Work in Sabah is in collaboration with the Sabah Wildlife Department, Cardiff University and the Danau Girang Field Center, the Universiti Malysia Sabah and the Kinabatangan Orang-utan Conservation Programme HUTAN.

E) チンパンジー、ボノボに関する研究
Mike Seres
-While working on the transfer of 1.1. Bonobos from the Cincinnati Zoo, I gave an invited presentation, titled "40 Years in 'Pan Collage' - Learning from Chimpanzee Professors in Captive Settings" to the zoo staff.
-Delivered two Bonobos, along with a Cincinnati Zoo Bonobo Keeper to Japan (Higashiyama Zoo Quarantine Facility) from the Cincinnati Zoo in Ohio State, USA, escorting them on a cargo plane.
-At KS I have been regularly assisting Drs. S. Yamamoto & F. Kano with their research on Bonobos: touch-panel tests, eye-tracking tests, food-sharing tests, juice-dipping tests, (involving Chimpanzees) respectively.
-As a Chimpanzee EEP Introduction Advisor I have been very active and busy helping EAZA with all their Chimpanzee introductions, integrations of male and female as well as juvenile individuals, a volunteer work. Due to the conservation effort of the West African Chimpanzee (Pan t. verus) in captivity, many European Zoos relocate and re-socialize their P.t.v. population that involves a large number of Chimpanzees and Zoos that require expert advice in introduction procedures and management.
I actively continue giving advice for free, as one of the appointed EEP Introduction Advisor besides my daily duties at the Kumamoto Sanctuary.

F) Cultural Transmission and Cultural Variation in Japanese macaques.
Claire Watson
This financial year, I completed data collection for the experimental investigation of cultural transmission of arbitrary object-related action-sequences using the group diffusion paradigm. Controlled experimental manipulation of captive groups allows unambiguous demonstration that behaviour patterns can be transmitted socially in a particular species, and is therefore fundamental to verifying the existence of cultures in wild populations. Research was carried out at the Research Resource Station of Kyoto University Primate Research Institute. In autumn, I carried out an international exchange with the Lester E Fisher Center, Lincoln Park Zoo, Chicago. In the latter half of the year, I began a project on cultural variation in Japanese macaques across Japan (supported by a 2-year JSPS grant-in-aid for research activity start-up awarded in October 2015). The initial step is a thorough survey of existing literature on potential behavioural traditions in this species. I will visit the long-term field sites in Japan, beginning this year with Jigokudani, Awajishima, Shodoshima, Takasakiyama and Arashiyama.

<研究業績>

原著論文

1) Andy Reynolds, Yan Ropert-Coudert, Akiko Kato, Andre Chiaradia, Andrew Macintosh (2015/10) A priority-based queuing process explanation for scale-free foraging behaviours. Animal Behaviour,108,67-71.

2) Anja Widdig, Matthew J. Kessler, Fred B. Bercovitch, John D. Berard, Christine Duggleby, Peter Nurnberg, Richard G. Rawlins, Ulrike Sauermann, Qian Wang, Michael Krawczak, Jorg Schmidtke (2016) Genetic studies on the Cayo Santiago rhesus macaques: A review of 40 years of research. American Journal of Primatology,78:44-62.

3) Bercovitch, F.B., and Berry, P.S.M. (2015) The composition and function of Thornicroft's giraffe all-male herds. Afr. J. Ecol. 53:167-174.

4) Berry, P.S.M., and Bercovitch, F.B. (2015) Leadership of herd progressions in the Thornicroft's giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis thronicrofti) of Zambia. Afr. J. Ecol.53:175-182.

5) Bercovitch, F.B., and Berry, P.S.M. (2015) Giraffe birth locations in the South Luangwa National Park, Zambia: Site fidelity or microhabitat selection? Afr. J. Ecol.53:206-213.

6) Bercovitch, F.B., and Deacon, F. (2015) Gazing at a giraffe gyroscope: where do we go from here? Afr. J. Ecol.,53:135-146.
7) Cecile Sarabian, Andrew Macintosh (2015/11) Hygienic tendencies correlate with low geohelminthinfection in free-ranging macaques. Biology Letters,11:20150757,11,20150757.

8) Deacon, F., Nel, P. & Fred Bercovitch (2015) Concurrent pregnancy and lactation in wild giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis). Afr Zool,50,331-334.

9) Ellis, W., Fitzgibbon, S..... & Fred Bercovitch (2015) The role of bioacoustics signals in koala sexual seletion: insights fromseasonal patterns of associations revealed with GPS-proximity untis. PLOS ONE.[doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0130657]

10) Julie Duboscq, Valeria Romano, Cedric Sueur, Andrew Macintosh (2016/02) Network centrality and seasonality interact to predict lice load in a social primate. Scientific Reports,6:22095,22095.

11) Lucie Rigaill, Andrew J. J. MacIntosh, James P. Higham, Sandra Winters, Keiko Shimizu, Keiko Mouri, Takeshi Furuichi, Cecile Garcia (2015/08) Multimodal Advertisement of Pregnancy in Free-Ranging Female Japanese Macaques (Macaca fuscata). PLOS ONE,10,8,e0135127.

12) MacIntosh A.J.J. (2015) At the edge of chaos - error tolerance and the maintenance of Levy statistics in animal movement. Comment on "Liberating Levy walk research from the shackles of optimal foraging" by A.M. Reynolds. Physics of Life Reviews.

13) Xavier Meyer, Andrew MacIntosh, Akiko Kato, Andre Chiaradia, Yan Ropert-Coudert (2015/08) Hydrodynamic handicaps and organizational complexity in the foraging behavior of two free-ranging penguin species. Animal Biotelemetry,3:25,1.

14) Yuko Hattori, Masaki Tomonaga and Tetsuro Matsuzawa (2015) Distractor effect of auditory rhythms on self-paced tapping in chimpanzees and humans. PLOS ONE,10,7,e0130682.

15) 服部 裕子 (2015/09) 音楽の起源. 科学,84,7,754-755.

学会

1) Duboscq J, Romano V, MacIntosh A, Sueur C (2015) A social network perspective on macaque social styles. The 38th meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Bend, USA.

2) Duboscq J, Romano V, Sueur C, MacIntosh A (2015) Investigating infection risk and sociality: centrality interacts with seasonality to predict lice load in free-ranging female japanese macaques, Macaca fuscata. The 38th meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, Bend, USA.

3) MacIntosh A, Sarabian C, Duboscq J, Thomas E, Romano V, Kaneko A, Okamoto M, Suzumura T (2015) Hidden constraints of chronic parasitism on health and fitness in Japanese macaques. The 31st Congress of the Primate Society of Japan, Kyoto, Japan.

4) Rigaill LR, MacIntosh AJJ, Higham JP, Winters S, Shimizu K, Mouri K, Furuichi T, Garcia C (2015) Multiple sexual signals of pregnancy in Japanese macaques. The 31st Congress of the Primate Society of Japan, Kyoto, Japan.

5) Sarabian C, MacIntosh A (2015) Hygiene efficiency against parasites in Japanese macaques. The 31st Congress of the Primate Society of Japan, Kyoto, Japan.

6) 服部 裕子 (2015/12) Distracotr effect of auditory rhythms on self-paced tapping in chimpanzees and humans. 第2回生物音響学会.

7) 服部 裕子 (2015/07) 音のリズムの特徴がチンパンジーのタッピングや自発的な動きに与える影響. 第31回日本霊長類学会.

8) 服部 裕子 (2015/09/12) 動物のリズム感から音楽の進化生物学的基盤を考える(Evolution and biological foundation of music: perspectives from non-human animal study about rhythm perception and production). 日本動物心理学会第75回大会.

著書

1) 足立幾磨 (2015) 動物たちは何を考えている??動物心理学の挑戦?. 技術評論社. 4月

講演

1) 足立幾磨 (2015/04/15) Space-based representation of an acquired sequence in rhesus macaques. Annual International Conference on Comparative Cognition.