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10.  Hanya G, Yoshihiro S, Zamma K, Matsubara H, Ohtake M, Kubo R, Noma N, Agetsuma N & Takahata Y (2004) Environmental determinants of the altitudinal variations in relative group densities of the Japanese macaques on Yakushima.  Ecological Research 19: 485-493.

This paper was given the Ecological Research Award by the Ecological Society Japan.

Abstract.  Altitudinal variations in relative group densities of the Japanese macaques on Yakushima were studied. This is an idela place for studying resource limitations because it avoids various complicating factors that are difficult to quantify but may affect animals densities, such as predation, inter-specific competition, and past catastrophes. The relative group density was high in the coastal forest (0-400 m), while it did not differ among the higher zones (400-800m, 800-1200 m and 1200-1886 m). To examine this variation, three habitat variables were analyzed: total basal area of food trees per unit area, seasonal variations in fruit abundance, and total annual fleshy fruit production. All of these variables indicate that fruit and seeds are most available in the coastal forest. Thus, altitudinal variations in the density of Japanese macaques on Yakushima are detemined by the total annual food abundance.

Key words: altitude; density; Japanese macaque; resource limitation; Yakushima.

<Written by: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Contact: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Last update: December 5, 2005>