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Hanya G (2004) Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima: effects of food and temperature. American Journal of Primatology 63: 165-177.

Abstract.  Seasonal variations in the activity budget of Japanese macaques in the coniferous forest of Yakushima were studied over one year. On an annual basis, they spent 38% of the daytime feeding, 16% traveling, 14% in social interactions, and 32% engaged in resting. The effects of temperature and food-related factors (food distribution, feeding speed, food abundance) on the seasonal variations of activity budget were examined by stepwise multiple regression analysis. When the temperature was low, macaques decreased traveling and feeding time, in accordance with the prediction that endothermal animals save energy under severe thermoregulatory cost. When the feeding speed of available foods was slow, they spent more time feeding. When high-quality foods were abundant, they decreased feeding time. These macaques did not respond to fluctuations in food distribution. The present results indicate the importance of temperature as a determinant of activity budget in addition to that of food-related factors.

Key words: activity budget; feeding speed; thermoregulation; Japanese macaque; Yakushima.

<Written by: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Contact: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Last update: December 5, 2005>