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Hanya G, Zamma K, Hayaishi S, Yoshihiro S, Tsuriya Y, Sugaya S, Kanaoka MM, Hayakawa S & Takahata Y (2005) Comparisons of food availability and density of Japanese macaques in primary, naturally regenerated and plantation forests. American Journal of Primatology 66: 245-262.

Abstract
Food availability and density of Japanese macaques in Yakushima, southern Japan, were compared among primary forest and two habitats with logging disturbance and different regeneration histories. The study was conducted in an undisturbed national park, forest that was logged 7-18 years ago and later naturally regenerated, and forest that was logged 19-27 years ago and later planted with Japanese cedar Cryptomeria japonica trees. The plantation forest was primarily composed of a large Cryptomeria japonica trees at low stand density, while the naturally regenerated forest was composed of many small trees. Total basal area and number of trees in primary forest was comparable to those in plantation forest. Annual fruit production was greatest in naturally regenerated forest, intermediate in primary forest, and negligible in plantation forest. Herb availability was high in naturally regenerated forest, but low in primary and plantation forests. Group density of Japanese macaques was high in naturally regenerated forest, intermediate in primary forest, and low in plantation forest. Since group size in naturally regenerated forest was small, individual density was almost the same as in primary forest. These results suggest that the effects on macaques of regeneration vary between the two habitats. Plantation forest consists mostly of Cryptomeria japonica, which supplies only flowers as food in a limited season, and the density of macaques is smaller there. On the other hand, in naturally regenerated forest, fruit production and herb availability are high probably due to the enhanced light conditions after logging and the macaque density there is as high as in primary forest.

Key words: Cryptomeria japonica; expansive afforestation; frugivore; logging; natural regeneration; plantation

<Written by: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Contact: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Last update: December 5, 2005>