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Hanya G, Matsubara M, Hayaishi S, Zamma K, Yoshihiro S, Kanaoka MM, Sugaya S, Kiyono M, Nagai M, Tsuriya Y, Hayakawa S, Suzuki M, Yokota T, Kondo D & Takahata Y (2008) Food conditions, competitive regime, and female social relationships in Japanese macaques: within-population variation on Yakushima. Primates 49: 116-125

Abstract
Feeding conditions, competitive regime, and female social relationships of Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) on Yakushima were compared between the two habitats at two different altitudes (coniferous forest, 1000-1200 m and coastal forest, 0-200 m). Fruit availability was higher in the coastal forest. There was no consistent difference in the frequency of agonistic interactions within a group during feeding between the two habitats. The coastal forest evoked stronger inter-group contest competition compared to the coniferous forest as evidenced by a higher inter-group encounter rate and a higher proportion of aggressive encounters to non-aggressive ones. Birth rate was higher in larger compared to smaller groups in the coastal forest, but did not differ in the coniferous forest. In spite of these differences in competitive regime, no variation in female social relationships was observed, such as direction and concentration on particular individuals in grooming, linearity in dominance rank, counter-attack, and support of juvenile kin during agonistic interactions. The present results indicate that the female social relationships of Japanese macaques are robust and do not change flexibly according to the changes in the current environment.


Keywords: socioecology, feeding competition, within-group contest, between-group contes

<Written by: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Contact: Goro Hanya (hanya<atmark>pri.kyoto-u.ac.jp)>
<Last update: April 1, 2008>