Density of Japanese Macaque
(Macaca fuscata yakui) Males Ranging Alone: Seasonal and Regional Variation in Male Cohesiveness with the Group
Yosuke Otani, Shinichi Yoshihiro, Yukio Takahata, Koichiro Zamma, Makiko Nagai, Masato Kanie, Shuhei Hayaishi, Masaya Fujino, Kazusa Sugaya, Masaaki Sudo, Shiori Amanai, Masato Kaneda, Yoshiharu Tachikawa, Yoshihiro Fukunaga, Yuji Okahisa, Kanako Higashi and Goro Hanya
We conducted point censuses in Yakushima island to estimate the density of
Japanese macaque (Macaca fuscata yakui) males ranging alone, focusing on
its vegetational, seasonal, and regional variation. In highland areas, the
detection frequency of males ranging alone did not differ among different
types of vegetation, despite the latter's effect on overall population
density. The detection frequency of males ranging alone in the mating
season was a third of that in the non-mating season. In the mating season,
males exhibit strong cohesiveness with a group, probably in search of
resident estrous females. Outside of the mating season, we detected 25%
fewer males ranging alone in lowland areas, which have high population
densities and strong inter-group competition, than in highland areas. The
absolute density of males ranging alone was estimated to be 1.2-5.7
individuals/km2. Meanwhile, the group and population densities were
1.25/km2 and 19.3/km2, respectively. A considerable number of males
therefore remained outside of groups, and male cohesiveness with groups is
flexible in relation to ecological and social circumstances.
Mammal Study 38(2):105-115. 2013
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