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Paternity and kin structure among neighbouring groups in wild bonobos at Wamba
Shintaro Ishizuka, Yoshi Kawamoto, Tetsuya Sakamaki, Nahoko Tokuyama, Kazuya Toda, Hiroki Okamura, Takeshi Furuichi

Although both bonobos and chimpanzees are male-philopatric species, outcomes of male?male reproductive competition seem to be more closely associated with mating success in chimpanzees. This suggests that the extent of male reproductive skew is lower in bonobos. In addition, between-group male?male reproductive competition is more lethal in chimpanzees. This suggests that between-group differentiation in male kinship is lower in bonobos. We analysed the paternity of 17 offspring in two bonobo groups and estimated the relatedness of individuals among three neighbouring groups by using DNA extracted from non-invasive samples at Wamba, in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The alpha males sired at least nine of 17 offspring. This supports a previous finding that the male reproductive skew is higher in bonobos than that in chimpanzees. Average relatedness among males within groups was significantly higher than that among males across groups, whereas there was no significant difference among females between within and across groups. These results are consistent with male philopatry, highly skewed reproductive success of males and female dispersal. Higher average relatedness among males within groups suggest that the differences in hostility towards males of different groups between bonobos and chimpanzees may be explained by factors other than kinship.
Bibliographic information

Royal Society Open Science Published 31 January 2018.
DOI: 10.1098/rsos.171006
2018/02/01 Primate Research Institute